Abu Hafs Omar bin Al-Khattab Al-Adawi Al-Qurashi, nicknamed Al-Farouq, is the second of the Rightly Guided Caliphs and one of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, and one of the most famous and influential people and leaders in Islamic history. He is one of the ten missionaries of Paradise, and among the scholars and ascetics of the Companions. He assumed the Islamic caliphate after the death of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq on August 23, 634 AD, corresponding to the twenty-second of Jumada al-Thani in the year 13 AH. Ibn al-Khattab was an expert judge and was famous for his fairness and fairness to people from grievances, whether they were Muslims or non-Muslims.
He is the founder of the Hijri calendar, and during the era of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, Islam reached a great amount, and the scope of the Islamic state expanded to include all of Iraq, Egypt, Libya, the Levant, Persia, Khorasan, eastern Anatolia, southern Armenia and Sijistan. Thus, the Islamic state absorbed the entire territory of the Sassanid Persian Empire and about two-thirds of the territory of the Byzantine Empire. The military genius of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab was evident in his numerous organized campaigns that he directed to subdue the Persians, who outnumbered the Muslims in strength, and was able to conquer their entire empire in less than two years. Its ethnicities are diverse
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